Objective: Bizygomatic (upper face) and bigonial (lower face) width are more than 2 SD below the mean
Subjective: An apparent reduction in the width of the upper and lower face
Objective measurement of upper facial width is made with spreading calipers. The tips of the calipers are passed over the zygomatic arches until maximum width is determined. Objective measurement of the lower face is made with spreading calipers, with the tips firmly pressed against the inferomedial surface of the angle of the mandible [Farkas, ]. Narrow face is distinct from Long face.